The Chameleon board is an FPGA-based shield compatible with an Arduino UNO base board. The Chameleon is the same form factor as the Arduino UNO. The Chameleon board provides a limited number of buffered Arduino UNO I/O connections. Level shifters are included to allow the Chameleon to support both +5V and +3.3V I/O signal levels. (The user manually sets the I/O signalling voltage using a jumper block.)
The Chameleon provides the following connections to the Arduino UNO:
(1)+5V- Allows Chameleon to be powered from the UNO (2)GND- Common signal/power return (3)IO- Port D; TTL UART RxD (Level Shift Open) (4)IO- Port D; TTL UART TxD (Level Shift Open) (5)IO- Port D; INT0 (Interrupt 0 Input) (Level Shift Drvr) (6)IO- Port D; INT1 (Interrupt 1 Input) (Level Shift Drvr) (7)IO- Port D; T0 (Timer 0 Output)(Level Shift Drvr) (8)IO- Port D; T1 (Timer 1 Output)(Level Shift Drvr) (9)IO - Port B; SS (SPI Slave Slct)(Level Shift Drvr) (10) IO - Port B; MOSI (Level Shift Drvr) (11) IO - Port B; MISO (Level Shift Drvr) (12) IO - Port B; SCK(SPI Slave Clk) (Level Shift Drvr) (13) SDA- AD; SDA(I2C Serial Data) (Level Shift Open) (14) SCL- AD; SCL(I2C Serial Clk)(Level Shift Open)
The term "Level Shift Open" indicates that the level shifter on board supports open-source/open-drain type of signals. In other words, the level shifter can be used with open-drain busses such as I2C that use pull-up resistor to passively terminate the bus and to set the bus to logic 1. The term "Level Shift Drvr" is used to indicate that the level shifter on board is an active driver. The level shifter is not able to drive heavy loads, but it does actively switch. Thus, Chameleon I/O signals buffered by such a driver should not be used for open source/open drain busses.
The Chameleon board is available with one of two Xilinx Spartan 3A FPGAs:
(1) XC3S50A-4VQG100I, or (2) XC3S200A-4VQG100I.
The XC3S50A FPGA is described by Xilinx as having the equivalent of 50,000 logic gates. The XC3S50A has 1,408 FFs and 4-input Look-Up Tables (LUTs), 62 I/O and 6 input-only user configurable pins, three (3) 18kb Block RAMs, and two Digital Clock Managers (DCMs). Xilinx describes the XC3S200A FPGA as having the equivalent of 200,000 logic gates. The XC3S200A has the same number of user configurable pins, but has 3,584 FFs and 4-input Look-Up Tables (LUTs), sixteen (16) 18kb Block RAMs, and 4 DCMs.
Beyond the twelve (12) I/O connections to the Arduino UNO, the Chameleon provides the following features:
(1) 128kB SRAM- External User RAM (2) 32Mb SPI Flash EPROM- Configuration Image and User Data Flash (3) 512B SPI FRAM - Non-volatile Ferro-Electric RAM (4) two 4-wire RS-232 or 2-wire RS-485 ports (drivers and connector)
In support of the open hardware concept of which the Arduino orgranization is a leader, the Chameleon is provided as an open hardware platform. The schematics and BOMs are freely available as PDFs.
The Chameleon board is primarily intended to be a slave device in an Arduino project. It specifically provides a number of interfaces between an Arduino base board and the Chameleon for this purpose (see above). It is envisioned that a Chameleon equipped with the XC3S50A FPGA will not contain a soft-core processor (as demonstrated in this project). With an XC3S50A FPGA, the board is best suited as a dual-channel bufferred interface for industrial automation interfaces such as Modbus. The user/integrator is free to configure the much lower cost XC3S50A FPGA to use the external SRAM as a deep RAM-based FIFO, and to provide an I2C, SPI, or UART slave interface in order to interface the Chameleon to the Arduino base board.
With a XC3S200A FPGA, the Chameleon board can be used as a slave or a master device. As a slave device, a Chameleon board equipped with an XC3S200A FPGA can support a soft-core processor. The soft-core processor demonstrated in this project can operate from 26-28kB of internal block RAM, and operate at clock rates in excess of 30 MHz. As configured for this application, the M65C02_CPU soft-core processor operates at 48 MHz using a four clock micro- cycle. (Single cycle operation is possible, but is beyond the scope of this project.) In this configuration, the 65C02-compatible core provides access to a very fast microcomputer with access to two buffered UARTs and a buffer- ed SPI master interface, and 26 kB of internal block RAM and 128 kB of ex- ternal SRAM. When attached to an SPI/SSP slave interface and dual-port RAM interface to an Arduino-compatible base board, the M65C02 becomes a very powerful intelligent peripheral.
As an Arduino-compatible base board, a Chameleon board equipped with an XC3S200A FPGA can be a very economical custom controller. The M65C02 soft- core provided in this project is not the only open source soft-core pro- cessor that can be used in such an application. The flexibility of the Chameleon board is only limited by the imagination of those using it. The FPGA is very flexible, and the external memory and serial interfaces which connect to it provide a powerful starting point for many hobby and indus- trial control projects.